Documentation

Documentation

Deploy a MinIO Tenant

This procedure documents deploying a MinIO Tenant onto a stock Kubernetes cluster using the MinIO Operator Console.

MinIO Operator Console

The MinIO Operator supports only the Distributed (Multi-Node Multi-Drive) MinIO topology. You can use basic Kubernetes YAML resource definitions to deploy Single-Node Single-Drive and Single-Node Multi-Drive topologies for local testing and evaluation as necessary.

The Operator Console provides a rich user interface for deploying and managing MinIO Tenants on Kubernetes infrastructure. Installing the MinIO Kubernetes Operator automatically installs and configures the Operator Console.

This documentation assumes familiarity with all referenced Kubernetes concepts, utilities, and procedures. While this documentation may provide guidance for configuring or deploying Kubernetes-related resources on a best-effort basis, it is not a replacement for the official Kubernetes Documentation.

Prerequisites

MinIO Kubernetes Operator and Plugin

The procedures on this page requires a valid installation of the MinIO Kubernetes Operator and assumes the local host has a matching installation of the MinIO Kubernetes Operator. This procedure assumes the latest stable Operator and Plugin version 4.5.4.

See Deploy the MinIO Operator for complete documentation on deploying the MinIO Operator.

You can install the MinIO plugin using either the Kubernetes Krew plugin manager or manually by downloading and installing the plugin binary to your local host:

Krew is a kubectl plugin manager developed by the Kubernetes SIG CLI group. See the krew installation documentation for specific instructions. You can use the Krew plugin for Linux, MacOS, and Windows operating systems.

You can use Krew to install the MinIO kubectl plugin using the following commands:

kubectl krew update
kubectl krew install minio

You can validate the installation of the MinIO plugin using the following command:

kubectl minio version

The output should match 4.5.4.

You can download the MinIO kubectl plugin to your local system path. The kubectl CLI automatically discovers and runs compatible plugins.

The following code downloads the latest stable version 4.5.4 of the MinIO Kubernetes plugin and installs it to the system path:

curl https://github.com/minio/operator/releases/download/v4.5.4/kubectl-minio_4.5.4_linux_amd64 -o kubectl-minio
chmod +x kubectl-minio
mv kubectl-minio /usr/local/bin/

The mv command above may require sudo escalation depending on the permissions of the authenticated user.

Run the following command to verify installation of the plugin:

kubectl minio version

The output should display the Operator version as 4.5.4.

You can download the MinIO kubectl plugin to your local system path. The kubectl CLI automatically discovers and runs compatible plugins.

The following PowerShell command downloads the latest stable version 4.5.4 of the MinIO Kubernetes plugin and installs it to the system path:

Invoke-WebRequest -Uri "https://github.com/minio/operator/releases/download/v4.5.4/kubectl-minio_4.5.4_windows_amd64.exe" -OutFile "C:\kubectl-plugins\kubectl-minio.exe"

Ensure the path to the plugin folder is included in the Windows PATH.

Run the following command to verify installation of the plugin:

kubectl minio version

The output should display the Operator version as 4.5.4.

Kubernetes Version 1.19.0

Starting with v4.0.0, the MinIO Operator requires Kubernetes 1.19.0 and later. The Kubernetes infrastructure and the kubectl CLI tool must have the same version of 1.19.0+.

This procedure assumes the host machine has kubectl installed and configured with access to the target Kubernetes cluster. The host machine must have access to a web browser application.

Persistent Volumes

MinIO can use any Kubernetes Persistent Volume (PV) that supports the ReadWriteOnce access mode. MinIO’s consistency guarantees require the exclusive storage access that ReadWriteOnce provides.

For Kubernetes clusters where nodes have Direct Attached Storage, MinIO strongly recommends using the DirectPV CSI driver. DirectPV provides a distributed persistent volume manager that can discover, format, mount, schedule, and monitor drives across Kubernetes nodes. DirectPV addresses the limitations of manually provisioning and monitoring local persistent volumes.

Deploy a Tenant using the MinIO Operator Console

To deploy a tenant from the MinIO Operator Console, complete the following steps in order:

1) Access the MinIO Operator Console

2) Complete the Tenant Setup

3) The Configure Section

1) The Images Section

5) The Pod Placement Section

6) The Identity Provider Section

7) The Security Section

8) The Encryption Section

9) Deploy and View the Tenant

10) Connect to the Tenant

11) Forward Ports

1) Access the MinIO Operator Console

Use the kubectl minio proxy command to temporarily forward traffic between the local host machine and the MinIO Operator Console:

kubectl minio proxy

The command returns output similar to the following:

Starting port forward of the Console UI.

To connect open a browser and go to http://localhost:9090

Current JWT to login: TOKEN

Open your browser to the specified URL and enter the JWT Token into the login page. You should see the Tenants page:

MinIO Operator Console

Click the + Create Tenant to start creating a MinIO Tenant.

2) Complete the Tenant Setup

The Setup pane displays core configuration settings for the MinIO Tenant.

Settings marked with an asterisk * are required:

Field

Description

Name

The name of the MinIO Tenant

Namespace

The Kubernetes Namespace in which to deploy the tenant. You can create the namespace by selecting the plus + icon if it does not exist.

The Operator supports at most one MinIO Tenant per namespace.

Storage Class

Specify the Kubernetes Storage Class the Operator uses when generating Persistent Volume Claims for the Tenant.

Ensure the specified storage class has sufficient available Persistent Volume resources to match each generated Persistent Volume Claim.

Number of Servers

The total number of MinIO server pods to deploy in the Tenant.

The Operator by default uses pod anti-affinity, such that the Kubernetes cluster must have at least one worker node per MinIO server pod. Use the Pod Placement pane to modify the pod scheduling settings for the Tenant.

Number of Drives per Server

The number of storage volumes (Persistent Volume Claims) the Operator requests per Server.

The Operator displays the Total Volumes under the Resource Allocation section. The Operator generates an equal number of PVC plus two for supporting Tenant services (Metrics and Log Search).

The specified Storage Class must correspond to a set of Persistent Volumes sufficient in number to match each generated PVC.

Total Size

The total raw storage size for the Tenant. Specify both the total storage size and the Unit of that storage. All storage units are in SI values, e.g. \(Gi = GiB = 1024^3\) bytes.

The Operator displays the Drive Capacity under the:guilabel:Resource Allocation section. The Operator sets this value as the requested storage capacity in each generated PVC.

The specified Storage Class must correspond to a set of Persistent Volumes sufficient in capacity to match each generated PVC.

Memory per Node [Gi]

Specify the total amount of memory (RAM) to allocate per MinIO server pod. See Memory for guidance on setting this value.

The Kubernetes cluster must have worker nodes with sufficient free RAM to match the pod request.

Erasure Code Parity

The Erasure Code Parity to set for the deployment.

The Operator displays the selected parity and its effect on the deployment under the Erasure Code Configuration section. Erasure Code parity defines the overall resiliency and availability of data on the cluster. Higher parity values increase tolerance to drive or node failure at the cost of total storage. See Erasure Coding for more complete documentation.

Select Create to create the Tenant using the current configuration. While all subsequent sections are optional, MinIO recommends reviewing them prior to deploying the Tenant.

3) The Configure Section

The Configure section displays optional configuration settings for the MinIO Tenant and its supporting services.

Field

Description

Expose Services

The MinIO Operator by default directs the MinIO Tenant services to request an externally accessible IP address from the Kubernetes cluster Load Balancer if one is available.

Most public cloud Kubernetes infrastructures include a global Load Balancer which meets this requirements. Other Kubernetes distributions may include a load balancer that can respond to these requests.

You can direct the Tenant to not make this request by toggling the option to Off for the MinIO Service and Console Service.

Override Tenant Defaults

The MinIO Operator sets the Kubernetes Security Context for pods to a default of 1000 for User, Group, and FsGroup. The FSGroupChangePolicy defaults to Always. MinIO does not run the pod using the root user.

You can modify the Security Context to direct MinIO to run using a different User, Group,FsGroup ID, and FSGroupChangePolicy. You can also direct MinIO to run as the Root user.

Override Log Search Defaults

The MinIO Operator deploys a Log Search service (SQL Database and Log Search API) to support Audit Log search in the MinIO Tenant Console.

You can modify the Security Context to run the associated pod commands using a different User, Group, or FsGroup ID. You can also direct the pod to not run commands as the Root user.

You can also modify the storage class and requested capacity associated to the PVC generated to support the Log Search service.

Override Prometheus Search Defaults

The MinIO Operator deploys a Prometheus service to support detailed metrics in the MinIO Tenant Console.

You can modify the Security Context to run the associated pod commands using a different User, Group, or FsGroup ID. You can also direct the pod to not run commands as the Root user.

You can also modify the storage class and requested capacity associated to the PVC generated to support the Prometheus service.

1) The Images Section

The Images section displays container image settings used by the MinIO Tenant.

Field

Description

MinIO’s Image

The container image to use for the MinIO Server. See the MinIO Quay or the MinIO DockerHub repositories for a list of valid tags.

Log Search API’s Image

The container image to use for MinIO Log Search API.

KES Image

The container image to use for MinIO KES.

Log Search Postgres Image
Log Search Postgres Init Image

The container images to use for starting the PostgreSQL service supporting the Log Search API

Prometheus Image
Prometheus Sidecar Image
Prometheus Init Image

The container images to use for starting the Prometheus service supporting the Log Search API.

5) The Pod Placement Section

The Pod Placement section displays pod scheduler settings for the MinIO Tenant.

Field

Description

None

Disables pod scheduling constraints for the tenant. This allows Kubernetes to schedule multiple Tenant pods onto the same node.

This may decrease resiliency, as a single Kubernetes worker can host multiple MinIO pods. If that worker is down or lost, objects may also be unavailable or lost.

Consider using this setting only in early development or sandbox environments with a limited number of worker nodes.

Default (Pod Anti-Affinity)

Directs the Operator to set anti-affinity settings such that no Kubernetes worker can host more than one MinIO server pod for this Tenant.

Node Selector

Directs the operator to set a Node Selector such that pods only deploy onto Kubernetes workers whose labels match the selector.

6) The Identity Provider Section

The Identity Provider section displays the Identity Provider settings for the MinIO Tenant. This includes configuring an external IDP such as OpenID or Active Directory / LDAP.

Field

Description

Built-In

Configure additional internal MinIO users for the Operator to create as part of deploying the Tenant.

OpenID

Configure an OpenID Connect-compatible service as an external Identity Provider (e.g. Keycloak, Okta, Google, Facebook, Dex) to manage MinIO users.

Active Directory

Configure an Active Directory or OpenLDAP service as the external Identity Provider to manage MinIO users.

7) The Security Section

The Security section displays TLS certificate settings for the MinIO Tenant.

Field

Description

Enable TLS

Enable or disable TLS for the MinIO Tenant.

Enable AutoCert

Directs the Operator to generate Certificate Signing Requests for submission to the Kubernetes TLS API.

The MinIO Tenant uses the generated certificates for enabling and establishing TLS connections.

Custom Certificates

Specify one or more custom TLS certificates for use by the MinIO Tenant.

MinIO supports Server Name Indication (SNI) such that the Tenant can select the appropriate TLS certificate based on the request hostname and the certificate Subject Alternative Name.

MinIO also supports specifying Certificate Authority certificates for validating client certificates minted by that CA.

8) The Encryption Section

The Encryption section displays the Server-Side Encryption (SSE) settings for the MinIO Tenant.

Enabling SSE also creates MinIO Key Encryption Service pods in the Tenant to facilitate SSE operations.

Field

Description

Vault

Configure Hashicorp Vault as the external KMS for storing root encryption keys. See Server-Side Object Encryption with Hashicorp Vault Root KMS for guidance on the displayed fields.

AWS

Configure AWS Secrets Manager as the external KMS for storing root encryption keys. See Server-Side Object Encryption with AWS Secrets Manager Root KMS for guidance on the displayed fields.

GCP

Configure Google Cloud Platform Secret Manager as the external KMS for storing root encryption keys. See Server-Side Object Encryption with GCP Secret Manager Root KMS for guidance on the displayed fields.

Azure

Configure Azure Key Vault as the external KMS for storing root encryption keys. See Server-Side Object Encryption with Azure Key Vault Root KMS for guidance on the displayed fields.

9) Deploy and View the Tenant

Select Create at any time to begin the deployment process. The MinIO Operator displays the root user credentials once as part of deploying the Tenant. Copy these credentials to a secure location.

You can monitor the Tenant creation process from the Tenants view. The State column updates throughout the deployment process.

Tenant deployment can take several minutes to complete. Once the State reads as Initialized, click the Tenant to view its details.

Tenant View

Each tab provides additional details or configuration options for the MinIO Tenant.

  • METRICS - Displays metrics collected from the MinIO Tenant.

  • SECURITY - Provides TLS-related configuration options.

  • POOLS - Supports expanding the tenant by adding more Server Pools.

  • LICENSE - Enter your SUBNET license.

10) Connect to the Tenant

The MinIO Operator creates services for the MinIO Tenant.

Use the kubectl get svc -n NAMESPACE command to review the deployed services:

kubectl get svc -n minio-tenant-1
NAME                               TYPE           CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)          AGE
minio                              LoadBalancer   10.97.114.60     <pending>     443:30979/TCP    2d3h
minio-tenant-1-console             LoadBalancer   10.106.103.247   <pending>     9443:32095/TCP   2d3h
minio-tenant-1-hl                  ClusterIP      None             <none>        9000/TCP         2d3h
minio-tenant-1-log-hl-svc          ClusterIP      None             <none>        5432/TCP         2d3h
minio-tenant-1-log-search-api      ClusterIP      10.103.5.235     <none>        8080/TCP         2d3h
minio-tenant-1-prometheus-hl-svc   ClusterIP      None             <none>        9090/TCP         7h39m
  • The minio service corresponds to the MinIO Tenant service. Applications should use this service for performing operations against the MinIO Tenant.

  • The *-console service corresponds to the MinIO Console. Administrators should use this service for accessing the MinIO Console and performing administrative operations on the MinIO Tenant.

The remaining services support Tenant operations and are not intended for consumption by users or administrators.

By default each service is visible only within the Kubernetes cluster. Applications deployed inside the cluster can access the services using the CLUSTER-IP.

Applications external to the Kubernetes cluster can access the services using the EXTERNAL-IP. This value is only populated for Kubernetes clusters configured for Ingress or a similar network access service. Kubernetes provides multiple options for configuring external access to services.

See the Kubernetes documentation on Publishing Services (ServiceTypes) and Ingress for more complete information on configuring external access to services.

11) Forward Ports

You can temporarily expose each service using the kubectl port-forward utility. Run the following examples to forward traffic from the local host running kubectl to the services running inside the Kubernetes cluster.

kubectl port-forward service/minio 443:443
kubectl port-forward service/minio-tenant-1-console 9443:9443

Deploy a MinIO Tenant using the Command Line

The kubectl minio tenant create command supports creating a MinIO Tenant in your Kubernetes cluster. The command requires that the cluster have a functional MinIO Operator installation.

To deploy a tenant from the command line, complete the following steps:

1) Determine Values for Required Settings

2) Determine Values for Optional Settings

3) Run the Command with Required and Optional Settings

4) Record the Access Credentials

5) Access the Tenant’s MinIO Console

6) Forward Ports

1) Determine Values for Required Settings

The kubectl minio tenant create command requires several configuration settings. Determine the values for all required settings.

The command requires values for each of the items in this table.

Setting

Description

TENANT_NAME

The name to use for the new tenant.

--capacity

The total raw storage size for the Tenant across all volumes. Specify both the total storage size and the Unit of that storage. All storage units are in SI values, e.g. \(Gi = GiB = 1024^3\) bytes.

For example, 16 Ti for 16 Tebibytes.

--servers

The total number of MinIO server pods to deploy in the Tenant.

The Operator by default uses pod anti-affinity, such that the Kubernetes cluster must have at least one worker node per MinIO server pod.

--volumes

The total number of storage volumes (Persistent Volume Claims). The Operator generates an equal number of PVC plus one for supporting logging.

The total number of persistent volume claims (PVC) per server is determined by dividing the number of volumes by the number of servers. The storage available for each PVC is determined by dividing the capacity by the number of volumes.

The generated claims have pod selectors so that claims are only made for volumes attached to node running the pod.

If the number of volumes exceeds the numnber of persistent volumes available on the cluster, MinIO hangs until the number of persistent volumes are available.

--namespace

Each MinIO tenant requires its own namespace.

Specify a namespace with the --namespace flag. If not specified, the MinIO Operator to uses minio.

The namespace must already exist in the Kubernetes cluster. Run kubectl create ns <new_namespace> to add one.

--storage-class

Specify the storage class to use.

New MinIO tenants use the default storage class. To specify a different storage class, add the --storage-class flag.

The specified --storage-class must match the storage-class of the Persistent Volumes (PVs) to which the PVCs should bind.

MinIO strongly recommends creating a Storage Class that corresponds to locally-attached volumes on the host machines on which the Tenant deploys. This ensures each pod can use locally-attached storage for maximum performance and throughput.

For example, the following command creates a new tenant with the following settings:

Name

miniotenant

Capacity

16 Tebibytes

Servers

4

Volumes

16

Namespace

minio

Storage Class

warm

kubectl minio tenant create miniotenant          \
                            --capacity 16Ti      \
                            --servers 4          \
                            --volumes 16         \
                            --namespace minio    \
                            --storage-class warm

2) Determine Values for Optional Settings

You can further customize your tenant by including any or all of the following optional flags when running the kubectl minio tenant create command:

Setting

Description

--image

Customize the minio image to use.

By default, the Operator uses the release image available at the time of the Operator’s release. To specify a different MinIO version for the tenant, such as the latest available, use the --image flag.

See the MinIO Quay or the MinIO DockerHub repositories for a list of valid tags.

--image-pull-secret

If using a custom container registry, specify the secret to use when pulling the minio image.

Use --image-pull-secret to specify the secret.

--kes-config

Configure a Key Encrption Service (KES)

Use the --kes-config flag to specify the name of the secret to use for KES Key Management Service (KMS) setup.

Enabling Server Side Encryption (SSE) also deploys a MinIO KES service in the Tenant to faciliate SSE operations.

For more, see the Github documentation.

Note

Generate a YAML File for Further Customizations

The MinIO Operator installs a Custom Resource Definition (CRD) to describe tenants. Advanced users can generate a YAML file from the command line and customize the tenant based on the CRD.

Do a dry run of a tenant creation process to generate a YAML file using the --output flag.

When using this flag, the operator does not create the tenant. Modify the generated YAML file as desired, then use kubectl apply -f <FILE> to manually create the MinIO tenant using the file.

3) Run the Command with Required and Optional Settings

At the command line, enter the full command with all Required and any Optional flags.

Consider a tenant we want to create:

Tenant Name

minio1

Capacity

16 Tebibytes

Servers

4

Volumes

16 (four per node)

Namespace

miniotenantspace

MinIO Image

Latest version, RELEASE.2022-11-17T23-20-09Z

Key ecnryption file

minio-secret

Storage class

warm

kubectl minio tenant create                                \
                     minio1                                \
                     --capacity 16Ti                       \
                     --servers 4                           \
                     --volumes 16                          \
                     --namespace miniotenantspace          \
                     --image RELEASE.2022-11-17T23-20-09Z  \
                     --kes-config minio-kes-secret         \
                     --storage-class warm

4) Record the Access Credentials

When generating the tenant, the MinIO Operator displays the access credentials to use for the tenant.

Important

This is the only time the credentials display. Copy the credentials to a secure location. MinIO does not show these credentials again.

In addition to access credentials, the output shows the service name and service ports to use for accessing the tenant.

5) Access the Tenant’s MinIO Console

To access the MinIO Console for the tenant, forward the tenant’s port.

  • If necessary, run kubectl get svc -n <namespace> to retrieve the tenant’s port number.

  • Run the following to forward the tenant’s port and access it from a browser:

    kubectl port-forward svc/<tenant-name>-console -n <tenant-namespace> <localport>:<tenantport>
    
    • Replace <tenant-name> with the name of your tenant.

    • Replace <tenant-namespace> with the namespace the tenant exists in.

    • Replace <localport> with the port number to use on your local machine to access the tenant’s MinIO Console.

    • Replace <tenantport> with the port number the MinIO Operator assigned to the tenant.

  • Go to https://127.0.0.1:<localport> to Access the tenant’s MinIO Console.

    Replace <localport> with the port number you used when forwarding the tenant’s port.

  • Login with the username and password shown in the tenant creation output and recorded in step 4 above.

6) Forward Ports

You can temporarily expose each service using the kubectl port-forward utility. Run the following examples to forward traffic from the local host running kubectl to the services running inside the Kubernetes cluster.

kubectl port-forward service/minio 443:443
kubectl port-forward service/minio-tenant-1-console 9443:9443