Documentation

Deploy MinIO: Single-Node Single-Drive

The procedures on this page cover deploying MinIO in a Single-Node Single-Drive (SNSD) configuration for early development and evaluation. SNSD deployments provide no added reliability or availability beyond what the underlying storage volume implements (RAID, LVM, ZFS, etc.).

Starting with https://github.com/minio/minio/releases/tag/RELEASE.2022-06-02T02-11-04Z, MinIO implements a zero-parity erasure coded backend for single-node single-drive deployments. This feature allows access to erasure coding dependent features without the requirement of multiple drives. This mode requires accessing stored objects through the S3 API, and does not support direct access to objects through the filesystem/POSIX interface.

MinIO only starts in SNSD mode if the storage volume or path is empty or only contain files generated by a previous SNSD deployment. See the documentation on SNSD behavior with pre-existing data for more information.

For extended development or production environments in orchestrated environments, use the MinIO Kubernetes Operator to deploy a Tenant on multiple worker nodes.

Important

https://github.com/minio/minio/releases/tag/RELEASE.2022-10-29T06-21-33Z fully removes the deprecated Gateway/Filesystem backends. MinIO returns an error if it starts up and detects existing Filesystem backend files.

To migrate from an FS-backend deployment, use mc mirror or mc cp to copy your data over to a new MinIO SNSD deployment. You should also recreate any necessary users, groups, policies, and bucket configurations on the SNSD deployment.

Pre-Existing Data

MinIO startup behavior depends on the the contents of the specified storage volume or path. The server checks for both MinIO-internal backend data and the structure of existing folders and files. The following table lists the possible storage volume states and MinIO behavior:

Storage Volume State

Behavior

Empty with no files, folders, or MinIO backend data

MinIO starts in SNSD mode and creates the zero-parity backend

Existing SNSD zero-parity objects and MinIO backend data

MinIO resumes in SNSD mode

Existing filesystem folders, files, but no MinIO backend data

MinIO returns an error and does not start

Existing filesystem folders, files, and legacy “FS-mode” backend data

MinIO returns an error and does not start

Changed in version RELEASE.2022-10-29T06-21-33Z.

Deploy Single-Node Single-Drive MinIO

The following procedure deploys MinIO consisting of a single MinIO server and a single drive or storage volume.

Network File System Volumes Break Consistency Guarantees

MinIO’s strict read-after-write and list-after-write consistency model requires local drive filesystems.

MinIO cannot provide consistency guarantees if the underlying storage volumes are NFS or a similar network-attached storage volume.

For deployments that require using network-attached storage, use NFSv4 for best results.

1) Pull the Latest Stable Image of MinIO

Select the tab for either Podman or Docker to see instructions for pulling the MinIO container image. The instructions include examples for both quay.io and DockerHub:

quay.io
podman pull quay.io/minio/minio
DockerHub
podman pull docker://minio/minio
quay.io
docker pull quay.io/minio/minio
DockerHub
docker pull docker://minio/minio

2) Create the Environment Variable File

Create an environment variable file at /etc/default/minio. For Windows hosts, specify a Windows-style path similar to C:\minio\config. The MinIO Server container can use this file as the source of all environment variables.

The following example provides a starting environment file:

# MINIO_ROOT_USER and MINIO_ROOT_PASSWORD sets the root account for the MinIO server.
# This user has unrestricted permissions to perform S3 and administrative API operations on any resource in the deployment.
# Omit to use the default values 'minioadmin:minioadmin'.
# MinIO recommends setting non-default values as a best practice, regardless of environment

MINIO_ROOT_USER=myminioadmin
MINIO_ROOT_PASSWORD=minio-secret-key-change-me

# MINIO_VOLUMES sets the storage volume or path to use for the MinIO server.

MINIO_VOLUMES="/mnt/data"

# MINIO_OPTS sets any additional commandline options to pass to the MinIO server.
# For example, `--console-address :9001` sets the MinIO Console listen port
MINIO_OPTS="--console-address :9001"

# MINIO_SERVER_URL sets the hostname of the local machine for use with the MinIO Server
# MinIO assumes your network control plane can correctly resolve this hostname to the local machine

# Uncomment the following line and replace the value with the correct hostname for the local machine and port for the MinIO server (9000 by default).

#MINIO_SERVER_URL="http://minio.example.net:9000"

Include any other environment variables as required for your local deployment.

3) Create and Run the Container

Select the container management interface of your choice for the relevant command syntax.

Copy the command to a text file for further modification.

podman run -dt                                  \
  -p 9000:9000 -p 9001:9001                     \
  -v PATH:/mnt/data                             \
  -v /etc/default/minio:/etc/config.env         \
  -e "MINIO_CONFIG_ENV_FILE=/etc/config.env"    \
  --name "minio_local"                          \
  minio server --console-address ":9001"

Specify any other options to podman run as necessary for your local environment.

Copy the command to a text file for further modification.

docker run -dt                                  \
  -p 9000:9000 -p 9001:9001                     \
  -v PATH:/mnt/data                             \
  -v /etc/default/minio:/etc/config.env         \
  -e "MINIO_CONFIG_ENV_FILE=/etc/config.env"    \
  --name "minio_local"                          \
  minio server --console-address ":9001"

Specify any other options to docker run as necessary for your local environment.

For running Docker in Rootless mode, you may need to set the following additional Docker CLI options:

Linux

--user $(id -u):$(id -g) - directs the container to run as the currently logged in user.

Windows

--security-opt "credentialspec=file://path/to/file.json" - directs the container to run using a Windows Group Managed Service Account.

The following table describes each line of the command and provides additional configuration instructions:

Line

Description

podman run -dt
docker run -dt

Directs Podman/Docker to create and start the container as a detached (-d) background process with a pseudo-TTY (-t). This allows the container to run in the background with an open TTY for bash-like access.

-p 9000:9000 -p 9001:9001

Binds the ports 9000 and 9090 on the local machine to the same ports on the container. This allows access to the container through the local machine.

-v PATH:/data/minio

Binds the storage volume PATH on the local machine to the /data path on the container. Replace this value with the full path to a storage volume or folder on the local machine. For example:

Linux or MacOS

~/minio/data/

Windows

C:\minio\data

-v /etc/default/minio:/etc/config.env

Mounts the environment file created in the previous step to the /etc/config.env path on the Container. For Windows hosts, specify the Windows-style path -v C:\minio\config:/etc/config.env.

The MinIO Server uses this environment file for configuration.

-e "MINIO_CONFIG_ENV_FILE=/etc/config.env"

Sets a MinIO environment variable pointing to the container-mounted path of the environment file.

--name "minio_local"

Sets a custom name for the container. Omit this value to allow Podman/Docker to automatically generate a container name. You can replace this value to best reflect your requirements.

minio server --console-address ":9001"

Starts the MinIO server using the minio:minio image pulled from an earlier step. The minio server --console-address ":9001" option directs the server to set a static port for the MinIO Console Web Interface. This option is required for containerized environments.

If you modify this value, ensure you set the proper port mapping using the -p flag to Podman/Docker to ensure traffic forwarding between the local host and the container.

Once you have applied any further customizations to the command, run it in your preferred terminal or shell environment. The command should return a unique ID for the created container.

4) Validate the Container Status

Run the following command to retrieve logs from the container. Replace the container name with the value specified to --name in the previous step.

podman logs minio

The command should return output similar to the following:

Run the following command to retrieve logs from the container. Replace the container name with the value specified to --name in the previous step.

docker logs minio

The command should return output similar to the following:

Status:         1 Online, 0 Offline.
API: http://10.0.2.100:9000  http://127.0.0.1:9000
RootUser: myminioadmin
RootPass: minio-secret-key-change-me
Console: http://10.0.2.100:9001 http://127.0.0.1:9001
RootUser: myminioadmin
RootPass: minio-secret-key-change-me

Command-line: https://min.io/docs/minio/linux/reference/minio-mc.html
   $ mc alias set myminio http://10.0.2.100:9000 myminioadmin minio-secret-key-change-me

Documentation: https://min.io/docs/minio/container/index.html

Container Networks May Not Be Accessible Outside of the Host

The API and CONSOLE blocks may include the network interfaces for the container. Clients outside of the container network cannot access the MinIO API or Console using these addresses.

External access requires using a network address for the container host machine and assumes the host firewall allows access to the related ports (9000 and 9090 in the examples).

5) Connect to the MinIO Service

You can access the MinIO Web Console by entering http://localhost:9001 in your preferred browser. Any traffic to the MinIO Console port on the local host redirects to the container.

Log in with the MINIO_ROOT_USER and MINIO_ROOT_PASSWORD configured in the environment file specified to the container.

MinIO Console displaying Buckets view in a fresh installation.

You can use the MinIO Console for general administration tasks like Identity and Access Management, Metrics and Log Monitoring, or Server Configuration. Each MinIO server includes its own embedded MinIO Console.

If your local host firewall permits external access to the Console port, other hosts on the same network can access the Console using the IP or hostname for your local host.

You can access the MinIO deployment over a Terminal or Shell using the MinIO Client (mc). See MinIO Client Installation Quickstart for instructions on installing mc.

Create a new alias corresponding to the MinIO deployment. Use a hostname or IP address for your local machine along with the S3 API port 9000 to access the MinIO deployment. Any traffic to that port on the local host redirects to the container.

mc alias set http://localhost:9000 myminioadmin minio-secret-key-change-me

Replace myminioadmin and minio-secret-key-change-me with the MINIO_ROOT_USER and MINIO_ROOT_PASSWORD values in the environment file specified to the container.

The command should return success if the container is running and accessible at the specified port.

You can then interact with the container using any mc command. If your local host firewall permits external access to the MinIO S3 API port, other hosts on the same network can access the MinIO deployment using the IP or hostname for your local host.